Sacrum: The vertebrae between the lumbar
and caudal region, that are fused together and that also connect
through the sacroiliac joint to the iliac blades of the pelvis.
muscles: Muscles that run between the vetebrae of
the cervical spine and the fist rib. The major nerves of the
brachial plexus between the spine and the arm pass between
the anterior and middle scalene muscles. they may become involved
in a pain syndrome called a thoracic outlet syndrome.
cell: A type of cell that wraps around a nerve and
is filed with a fatty material called myelin. These cells
provides the insulation allowing the nerve to rapidly conduct
a usually benign nerve tumor arising in the Schwann cells.
nerve: A large nerve carrying motor and sensory fibers
to the posterior thigh and the leg below the knee.
notch: An opening in the pelvis through which the
sciatic nerve passes from the lower abdomen out into the buttock
and upper leg.
Pain in the distribution of the sciatic nerve that may involve
L4,L5,S1, or S2 dermatomal components.
Curvature of the spine.
injury: Additional injury of brain or spinal cord,
after a primary vascular or traumatic injury. The secondary
injury is due to natural destructive factors released within
the neural tissue.
The forming of the various body segments during embryological
development, including the differentiation that distinguishes
cervical from thoracic from lumbar and from sacral types of
neurons: Nerve cells that carry signals from the
skin and muscle and special sensory organs back towards the
central nervous system.
A type of manual physical treatment for maintaining general
health and relaxation, as well as for treatment of pain.
Fine tuning of the performance of a magnet, such as an MRI
A catheter or tube that carries fluid to bypass it from one
body space to another,
nerves: The nerves that carry out movements and deliver
conscious sensation, as distinguished from the autonomic nervous
pain: A pain arising in the body tissues, typically
associated with injury or trauma to the body tissues.
evoked potentials: Electrical signals produced along
the nerves and in the cerebral cortex that can be detected
with electrodes, the potentials having been evoked or triggered
by repeated stimulating actuated by a computer.
Increased muscle tone that causes an increased hardness or
instability of muscles.
risks: Risks of surgery that are particular to the
individual type of surgery being done.
bifida a perta: Open spina bifida in which a congenital
malformation leaves a deep part of the spinal cord, such as
the cord itself, exposed through the skin.
bifida occulta: Abnormal closure of the spine or
spinal membranes that is concealed within normal intact skin.
canal: The space between the vertebral body and the
lamina through which the spinal dura and spinal cord and nerves
cord: The portion of the central nervous system extending
from the base of the brain down to the L1 or L2 level in most
individuals, that includes both the gray matter for the neuron
connection and the white matter of the long tracts running
from the brain to the final connections that feed the nerves
of the body.
gray matter: The area of the spinal cord that has
the connections between neurons.
nerves: Nerves that original at the spinal foramina
and continue outward to either become intercostal nerves or
join the lumbar, sacral, or brachial plexuses.
tap: the passage of a needle into the spinal fluid
inside the dura to drain fluid.
white matter: Long tracts of axons reacing from the
brain down to the lower portions of the spinal cord.
series: A series of X-rays in a defined set of the
views that provides an assessment of the spine.
A word root used to mean a vertebra.
Slippage between two vertebrae.
A separation or break between the lamina and the particular
process of vertebra.
Somatosensory evoked potentials.
cells: Cells in the body that have the potential
to develop into various different types of tissue.
Narrowing of the spinal canal or foramina.
A type of medication that mimics a natural body material and
reduces in flammation.
A surgery involving cutting the sternum from top to bottom
in order to gain access to the anterior chest and heart.
The large bony structure in the anterior chest to which many
of the ribs connect.
stitches: Buried stitches placed below the skin to
achieve a cosmetic skin closure.
empyema: The accumulation of infection and pus between
the dura membrane and the arachnoid membrane just outside
the spinal fluid space.
wires: An instrumentation in which wires are passed
below the lamina to secure a rod or screw to the lamina.
Slippage between two vertebrae.
Towards the skin. Opposite of deep.
Towards the top or upper portion of the structure.
nerve: A nerve on the lateral surface of the leg
beginning behind the knee and reaching to the lateral surface
of the foot. The nerve is sometimes subject to biopsy to test
for nerve disease or is taken to be used as a graft for nerve
series: A series of surgeries that are evaluated
and subjected to statistical analysis to evaluate outcome.
An outpatient facility that offers a full range of anesthesia
to carry out surgical procedures.
The removal of sympathetic ganglia in order to attempt to
treat abnormal function of the sympathetic nerous system.
ganglia: Collections of nerve connections, usually
on the outer or lateral surface of the vertebral body, that
help moderate and drive the autonomic nervous system.
nerves: A portion of the autonomic nervous system
that travels to the skin and helps control skin temperature
and color by adjusting the constricition or dilation of blood
The accumulation of fluid within the center of the spinal
A cavity within the spinal cord typically caused by the accumulation